Interdisciplinary Research Conference 2020

The Interdisciplinary Research Conference allows students and faculty to share a variety of research findings with the Palm Beach Atlantic community. Every year, the conference is recorded on video to ensure the research and presentations are preserved for archival purposes, the participants and families and for anyone else interested in viewing the lectures. Below you will find a recap of the virtual Interdisciplinary Research Conference 2020.

Keynote Speaker 

Dr. Tom Chesnes, a biology professor who studies estuaries and salt marshes, is the keynote speaker for the University’s annual Interdisciplinary Research Conference 2020. 

Chesnes, winner of the 2015 Charles & Hazel Corts Award for Outstanding Teaching, is a highly-published researcher who routinely invites his students to join him in his fieldwork. His address explores what happens when critical thinking leads us to differ with our tribes — people of the same family, faith or politics, he said.

“As believers, we can rest in the truth that all truth is God’s truth. As we recognize that, we lose some of that fear of bumping up against tribal boundaries.” Dr. Tom Chesnes

Student and Faculty Poster Presentations

Catalina Riosa & Dr. Angie McDonald

School of Arts & Sciences

In the State of Florida, there are currently more than 22,000 children and young adults in out-of-home-care (OoHC; “Children,” 2020). Children that enter the child welfare system, specifically OoHC, are much more vulnerable to being diagnosed with mental health conditions (Galvin, O’Donnell, Skouteris, Halfpenny, & Mousa, 2019); such as attachment disorder, conduct disorder, depression, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; Tarren-Sweeney, 2006). The presence of these challenging behaviors in children increases the risk of them suffering placement disruptions (Chamberlain et al., 2006) . The current study investigates the effects that a Bible-based therapeutic training can have on caregivers of children in the foster care system looking specifically at caregiver confidence, competency, and child behavior. Most of the literature in the area has focused exclusively on secular parent training aimed at reducing parental stress and difficult behaviors in children, and it has failed to look at an alternative Biblical approach.

Purpose: To assess whether incorporating team Objective Structured Clinical Encounters (TOSCE) into an Interprofessional Education (IEP) session with nursing and pharmacy students would improve students’ satisfaction and achieve competencies of interprofessional education focusing on ethical and legal principles/professional judgment.

Methods (design, sample, setting, measures, analysis): An exploratory descriptive pilot study of 114 undergraduate nursing and pharmacy participated in three contemporary healthcare ethical debates dramatized by theater department students.

Results: Students reported increased ability to maintain a climate of mutual respect, shared values, and team dynamics. They reported better use of the knowledge of their role and those of other professions to appropriately address healthcare needs of patients. Most rated their satisfaction with this IPE session from average to good.

Conclusion and Implications: Introducing TOSCE in an IPE session by debating ethical and legal principles/professional judgment allowed students to practice principles of shared values and ethics central to the commitment to collaboration and to gain an understanding of their unique and shared roles and ethical responsibilities.

Michelle Keba & Elizabeth Fairall

Warren Library

This study builds upon research conducted by Hinchcliffe, Rand, and Collier (2018), which examined information literacy misconceptions of first-year students as reported by academic librarians. In their study, Hinchcliffe et al. created a misconception inventory using responses from the First Year Experience Survey: Information Literacy in Higher Education (2017), conducted by Library Journal in conjunction with Credo. Our two phase study tested the validity of this information literacy misconception inventory by interviewing students about their misconceptions and comparing their responses with the inventory.

Shannon O’Briena, Jennifer Elvira, Julianna Davisa, Adrien Albrittona, Dr. Angie McDonald, & Dr. David M. Compton

School of Arts & Sciences

As drugs become an increasingly hot topic gaining more coverage in the media, more concrete research and data collections are being pushed for in the field of psychopharmacology. The previous research in this field has led to the present study which aims to collect data primarily focused on better defining the relationship between spatial and working memory on adolescent exposure to Ketamine by utilizing a rodent model. The rats in this study were injected with varying amounts of ketamine and were later tasked with completing several neuropsychological assessments which provided researchers with quantifiable data. We hypothesized that there would be a significant difference in the success rates in rats who were exposed to Ketamine in adolescence versus those who were not, our data supports this to be true however, not in the way we expected. We found that our data suggests that rats who were exposed to Ketamine in a low dose, performed our neuropsychological assessments more successfully than the rats who were never exposed.

Dr. John Dougherty, Nkiru Anyagaligbob, Katerina Xub, & Sheldon Lefkowitzb

Purpose. This study assessed medication reconciliation, ordering, dispensing, and administration activities of apixaban, dabigatran, and rivaroxaban for venous thromboembolism (VTE) treatment and stroke risk reduction in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF).

Methods. The study was a retrospective, process improvement analysis of patients for whom apixaban, dabigatran or rivaroxaban was prescribed by a hospitalist at a large community hospital. Measures included appropriate DOAC dosing, appropriate management during transition from parenteral anticoagulant to DOAC, DOAC scheduling/administration compliance, inpatient DOAC dosing and significant drug interactions.

Results. The study included 98 patients, 52 females and 46 males. The mean age was 64.4 years old (range 20 to 100 years). DOAC indications included DVT (16), PE (26), and AF (56). There was delay in initiation of DOACs in all 8 patients administered UFH and 4 of the 5 patients administered enoxaparin.

Conclusions. The study results highlight gaps in compliance with the new NPSG for anticoagulation therapy. Educational efforts for hospitalists, pharmacists, and nurses will be initiated to improve their understanding of DOAC characteristics when ordering and administrating these medications.

Nicholle Vazqueza, Bekah Armstronga, Tommy Magorkaa, & Dr. Angie McDonald

School of Arts & Sciences

Autism, a disorder that affects 1.4% of the children in the US, impacts the development of social interaction skills in verbal and nonverbal communication of children. Studies have shown that children exposed to music training leads to improvement in the cognitive development of those with autism (Pellicano, 2007). Children exposed to learning a new instrument had the outcome of showing higher scores on a music aptitude test along with a motor skills test (Ho, Cheung, Chan, 2003; Rose, Bartoli, Heaton, 2018; Schellenberg, Mankarious, 2012; Pfeiffer, Sabe, 2015). Children with autism are also more likely to feel a sense of ease to do an activity or learn easily after enjoying time with music rather than going straight into an activity or a teaching lesson. The current study will investigate if exposing autistic children to learning music or a musical instrument will increase their cognitive skills. These children will be led to interact in an activity before and after a music session to be evaluated in their retention and ability to cooperate.

Caleb Mitchell

Florida State University

The purpose of this research project is to significantly enhance and develop the importance of 20th and 21st century ballet to the School of Dance, specifically referencing the neoclassical and contemporary aesthetics. Combining professional experience, attending performances of creations by seminal choreographers William Forsythe, George Balanchine, Richard Siegal, David Dawson, and informal conversations with ballet professionals in the current field, the goal is to apply observed strategies to develop two choreographic creations during the summer. Following the summer research, and in the subsequent future, the aim is to present the research attained in conferences, as well as integrate methodologies, practices, and approaches in the already formed FSU Repertory class. From the research, this strategic future integration emphasizes the importance of contemporary and neoclassical ballet with the intentions to maintain and increase marketability of FSU dance majors, increase enrollment, and also by contributing needed technical and artistic contributions to job seeking FSU graduates for both national and international ballet company positions.

Corrine Schreinera & Dr. Velma Lee

Rinker School of Business

The future of work is pointed towards the notion of circular economy where Kramer and Porter (2016) suggests linking sustainable public procurement and sustainable business models. Many businesses, however, are still in the process of learning and embracing sustainability. Typical sustainability literature suggests four models of sustainability: economic, philanthropic, social web, and integrative which involves different commitment levels to sustainability. This is a teaching case written based on researching secondary data of a major agribusiness player in the industry. It illustrates the challenges, processes, and strategies that executives may encounter and deploy to steer their organizations towards the integrative model of sustainability, involving all constituents to enhance the organizations’ position in contributing beyond self-existence, but a global and circular community.

Sierra Kinga & Dr. Angela D. Witmer

School of Arts & Sciences

Macrofaunal invertebrates are a crucial to the food web as they are a food source to many larger animals. This study examined richness and abundance of marine benthic macrofauna living in the subtidal zone off Palm Beach Island, Florida. We sampled a total of 60 cores along four transects (50m, 100m, 150m, and 200m from low tide line). Three sediment cores were taken at each transect for grain size analysis. 176 benthic organisms were identified from 27 taxa. 65% of the total organisms collected comprised of five taxa: Ancinus depressus (21.0%), Aricidea sp. (16.5%); Scoloplos fragilis (11.4%), Sipuncula (8.5%), Scolelepsis squamata (8.0%).

Organismal presence was found to be significantly different between transects. Grain size was not found to be significantly different between transects. These results create a baseline dataset useful for comparison after a disturbance event such as beach nourishment projects, hurricanes, red tide.

Amberlyn Stuarta & Dr. Angela D. Witmer 

School of Arts & Sciences

Estimating the size of a fish population has previously been conducted by a visual census performed by snorkelers or divers. Newer approaches have shown that deploying underwater cameras can possibly yield more accurate estimations. Fish that are shy, or tend to hide when people are around, may be captured on camera footage. We performed a fish survey using baited underwater cameras along three transects (50m, 200m, and 250m from shoreline) to examine nearshore fish diversity among various habitats. We counted and identified 462 fish from 65 taxa. Results showed that the most abundant fish taxa comprised of 2 reef species, the silver porgy and slippery dick, which together comprised 22% of all observed organisms. The top eight species were examined. The 50m, sandy bottom transect was observed with the least abundance and fewest taxa (3), while the 250m, hardbottom, reef transect possessed the greatest species richness and highest abundance. The high abundance and richness in coral reef habitats is expected as reefs create complex physical structure and habitats.

John Suttera, Timothy Sienga, Tanner Younga, & Dr. Matthew J. Mitchell

School of Education & Behavioral Studies

Ten Subjects (age: 21.3 ±0.95 yrs, height: 69.6 ±3.75 in., weight: 148.7 ±17.98 lbs) engaged in a 5-week calf stretching protocol (1x/Day 7 days/week) of one leg (EXP), while the other leg did not participate in the stretching protocol (CON). Each stretching session consisted of 5 sets 5 sets of 30 seconds, with 10 second rest between sets. A Lafayette Hand-held dynanometer (Lafayette Sciences) was used to measure maximal isometric muscle strength (MVC) with the ankle dorsi-flexed at 90 degrees. Surface electromyography (EMG) signals were collected using wireless recording from electrodes on the gastrocnemius muscle (FreeEMG system, BTS Bioengineering Inc) and integrated using smoothing algorithms at 60Hz. A two-way, MANOVA (group x time) was used to assess differences in MVC and EMG. There were no significant differences in MVC, Max EMG or EMG integrals between groups over time. The present study suggests chronic stretching does not improve force production or alter motor recruitment.

Brandon SmithaZachary Toccoa, & Dr. Matthew Mitchell 

School of Education & Behavioral Studies

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of six weeks of intermittent fasting on measures of body composition. Twenty-two subjects participated in the study and were divided randomly into non fasting (CON) and fasting (TRF) groups. TRF subjects used an intermittent fasting protocol with a 6-hour eating window, while CON subjects maintained normal eating patterns. Body composition (via whole body plethysmography) and adipose tissue thickness (via B-Mode ultrasound measurement) was measured before (PRE) and after (POST) 6 weeks for both groups. A two-way repeated measures ANOVA was used to analyze differences between groups. Fat mass was significantly reduced in the TRN group (PRE: 25.87kg ±7.27, POST: 23.38 ±6.68) and abdominal fat thickness was lower (PRE: 1.99cm ±0.95, POST: 1.75cm ±0.82) v changes in the CON group. These findings suggest short term intermittent fasting alters body composition.

Kaley Hindsa, Sydney Eppehimera, & Dr. Matthew J. Mitchell

School of Education & Behavioral Studies

Beetroot juice and supplements are one of the most popular nitrate abundant substances found to increase athletic performance in high intensity and endurance exercise. This study examined the effects of nitrate supplementation on muscle electrical activity, and peak force during maximum contraction in a one rep max squat relative to subject’s maximum. Thirteen female Division II athletes (19.8 ±1.14 yr) ingested 10g (12.6 mmol of nitrate) of Human BeetElite supplement three hours prior to performing maximal squat exercise. Peak force and motor unit activation via surface electromyography (EMG) of the vastus medialis oblique muscle was assessed before (PRE) and 3 hours after (POST) nitrate supplementation. Peak force was significantly increased (623.01 ±60.76 W v 699.5 ±34.54 W) and EMG at 70% of maximal force was significantly increased (0.957 ± 0.44 mV 1.198 ±0.28 mV) in POST measurements. This study shows potential for nitrate supplementation improve muscle force production in athletes.

Talia Fradkina, & Emily Dillehaya, & Dr. Kristiann Dougherty

School of Arts & Sciences

Many proteins are required for the proper development and function of the pituitary gland. The aim of this research is to understand the genetic basis of pituitary dysfunction in a family with 2 affected children: one with Isolated Growth Hormone Deficiency (IGHD) and one with Combined Growth Hormone Deficiency (CPHD). Previous research identified a rare point mutation in the gene LHX4 in both affected siblings. The rest of the family members were analyzed for this variant. The father and the 2 unaffected siblings do not carry this variant, but the mom is a carrier. In order to determine the effects of this mutation on protein function, a PCR-based site-directed mutagenesis was performed to create the variant (c. G37A) in the type LHX4 cDNA. The c.G37A mutation replaces the amino acid valine with isoleucine at position 13 (V13I). Wild type LXH4 protein and the V13I variant will be produced using an in vitro translation system in order to compare the function of the 2 forms of the protein.

There has been an increase in the amount of biomedical waste collected on beaches in Palm Beach, Florida. The impact of this waste is unknown. We determined the amount of biomedical waste, type of medical waste, and distribution pattern. Over 1200 items were collected on beaches in 2018 and 2019. Items collected included syringes, needles, blood vials, Rx bottles, and IV components. These items are considered harmful to the environment, marine life, and humans. The most common type of material found in 2018 was syringes. In 2019, beaches samples were denoted north, middle, and south in reference to their geographical region on Palm Beach Island. After statistical analysis, the results indicated there was no correlation in the amount of waste found between the different geographical regions. Future studies need to determine if specific waste items are found more commonly on specific beaches.

Mikayla Goldena, Alison Austriaa, Emily Headleya, Dr. Stephen Sylvester, & Dr. Matthew J. Mitchell

School of Education & Behavioral Studies

Following a cancer diagnosis, exercise regimens have led to improvements in chronic fatigue, aerobic capacity and musculoskeletal strength. This investigation assessed changes in gait kinematics during sit-to-stand transitions and during walking in subjects experiencing cancer-related fatigue (CRF), following 8 weeks of exercise training. Twelve subjects (age: 68.36 ±9.23 yrs) were recruited for study participation. Before (PRE) and after (POST) 8 weeks of training, two tests were performed. First a Get Up and Go (GUP) test with the subject starting from a seated position, standing, walking 3 meters forward, returning to their original seat and sitting down. Second, each subject walked 9 meters (9mW), turned 180 degrees and then returned 9 meters to the original spot. Vertical Acceleration was significantly increased during the Sit-to-Stand portion of the GUP test (PRE: 7.13 ±2.24, POST: 8.86 ±2.44) Stride velocity during the 9mW test significantly increased in both the right (PRE: 1.25 ±0.33, POST: 1.30 ±0.33) and left (PRE: 1.26 ±0.34 POST: 1.31 ±0.34) legs. No measures during the Stand-to-Sit phase of the GUP test were significantly different. Walking Quality Index, Symmetry and Propulsion during the 9mW test were unchanged in PRE v POST. These data suggest resistance training appears may improve some aspects of gait in subject suffering from cancer-related fatigue. Future research utilizing more specified resistance training programs is needed.

Farrah Zamora, Dr. Matthew J. Mitchell, & Syndey Eppehimera 

School of Education & Behavioral Studies

In ballet, there are two main ways to perform a pirouette, a balanced spin with single-limb support: en dehors (outward) where the dancer turns away from the supporting leg, or en dedans (inward) where the dancer turns towards the supporting leg. This study examined differences in center of pressure and speed of change of center of pressure during both movements. A force plate (P6000D, BTS Bioengineering, Brooklyn, NY), built into a 20 ft elevated walkway was used to measure assess ground reaction forces, with a sampling rate of 500 Hz. The P6000D utilizes piezoelectric sensors that can assess forces at 2000N in X, Y and Z directions. Movement during the Pirouette En Dehors was 8.39mm (±3.33) in the x axis, 11.54mm (±3.73) n the y axis, with a mean speed of 81.42mm/sec (±29.37). Movement during the Pirouette En DeDans was 9.49mm (±5.62) in the x axis, 9.00mm (±4.58) in the y axis, with

a mean speed of 81.42mm/sec (±31.22). There was no significant difference in balance or speed between either pirouette, suggesting dancers have no difficulty shifting and controlling pressure along the mediolateral axis of their forefoot as they performed each pirouette

when compared to the anteroposterior axis of the forefoot.

Carly Middletona, Alexis Browna, Emily Headleya, Alex Rogersa, & Dr. Matthew J. Mitchell

School of Education & Behavioral Studies

The purpose of this study is to assess the effects of a motor skill development program on static postural balance, plantar pressures, and visual and physical reaction time in subjects with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Seventeen ASD subjects (age: 12- 21 yrs, height: 65.78 ±4.45 in, weight: 158.02 ±40.00 lbs) participated in a golf-instruction program (First Tee of the Palm Beaches and PGA REACH) occurring twice a week for six weeks. The individual programs lasted for forty-five minutes and all sessions worked on different core golf skills while previously learned skills were reviewed and integrated. Following six weeks of neuromuscular training plantar pressures and surface area improved and exhibited more normal distributions. This is in line to previous research done in our Laboratory. There were no significant changes in static equilibrium measures, gait kinematics or kinetics following six weeks of training.

Dr. Matthew J. DellaVecchia, Dr. Jacintha Cauffield, & Hannah Grimb

The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) states that “mental health is a part of, not apart from, athlete health”. Student athletes face challenges such as knowing whether medications that treat mental health issues might affect their play or are classified as a banned substance/performance enhancing drug. As part of an Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience, a fourth-year student pharmacist attended a Mental Health First Aid course. Mentored by both pharmacy practice and pharmaceutical sciences faculty members, the student-pharmacist prepared a brochure on medications used to treat depression and anxiety and presented the information, from a clinical and chemical perspective, to first-year NCAA Division II student-athletes at Palm Beach Atlantic University. Student-athletes were surveyed regarding perceptions of their mental well-being and the value of having a pharmacist or student pharmacist intern available to provide medication information. A majority (75%, n = 30) of student-athletes indicated that a student pharmacist intern dedicated to answering medication-related questions would be beneficial. Collaboration between pharmacy practice and pharmaceutical sciences during a fourth-year APPE helped improve first-year student(patient)-athlete awareness of medications used to treat depression and anxiety.

Christina Batoh1 & Dr. Hans G. Dam2 

1School of Arts & Sciences; 2University of Connecticut

We tested whether copepod-mediated paralytic shellfish toxin (PST) induction in Alexandrium fundyense differs with predator-prey evolutionary history. Toxin induction was compared between Acartia hudsonica copepods historically exposed (Maine) and naïve (New Jersey) to A. fundyense blooms. Induction of directly grazed cells (direct induction) and cells receiving only grazer cues (indirect induction) was measured. These effects were separated using cages; restricting copepods and directly grazed cells to one compartment, and indirectly-induced algae to another. Waterborne cues passed between compartments. Toxin content of induced cells

was compared to ungrazed controls. We also determined if grazer interaction with A. fundyense was required to create an inducing cue using treatments of starved grazers. Induction in cells within cages was greater than controls for both populations of copepod (ANOVA, p < 0.0001), but degree of induction was independent of population (p > 0.05). Induction in cells outside cages of starved copepods was only apparent for the Maine population (ANOVA; p < 0.0001). This plastic response of A. fundyense to A. hudsonica from Maine may be evolutionarily advantageous in defense against co-evolved predators.

Max Alvareza1,a, Dr. Sanghamitra Sahoo2, & Dr. Patrick J.  Pagano2

1Palm Beach Atlantic University, School of Arts & Sciences

2University of Pittsburgh

Pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH) ensues when the pulmonary arterioles become occluded due to proliferation and aberrant migration of cells, resulting in increased vascular resistance. This increase in resistance causes an increased afterload to the right ventricle causing it to hypertrophy, which can eventually lead to right ventricular failure. From previous studies, it has been gleaned that hypoxic conditions lead to upregulation of micro RNA 214 (miR-214), which has been shown to cause translational repression of a variety of mRNA leading to downregulation of proteins. A protein that could possibly be affected by miR-214 is p53. p53 is a protein that promotes apoptosis, and when its expression is attenuated, p53 unleashes proliferation. We hypothesize that hypoxia-induced miR-214 attenuates p53 expression in human pulmonary artery endothelial cells leading to EC proliferation. Results from western blotting indicated that miR-214 mimic transfected cells showed an increase in p53 expression. Though we know that under hypoxia conditions there is an increase in expression of miR-214, it appears to not be responsible for the attenuation of p53; another mechanism is causing the attenuation p53.

Alexandria Marullob, Denise Carballeab, Rita Michelle Riverab, & Alfredo Ardilab

School of Education & Behavioral Studies

The purpose of this literature review was to evaluate the mental health consequences of school shootings. A review was conducted using the following databases: Science Direct, Google Scholar, ProQuest Central, PubMed, and PsychINFO. Inclusion criteria consisted of peer-reviewed articles published in English between the years of 2003-2019. Keywords for the search included school shootings, mental health, and bullying. A total number of 21 articles were reviewed and 13 articles were retained. Reviewed literature indicated that victims of school shootings have a high probability of developing symptomatology of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Studies also showed that there are different interventions mental health practitioners can incorporate into treatment for victims of shootings. These strategies include reinforcing prosocial behavior, focusing on resilience, and emphasizing spiritual beliefs. Research indicates that mental health and school shootings is an area of concern. Further studies should be conducted to understand the relationship between mental health and school shootings.

Dr. Sandra Ojurongbe

School of Nursing

Background: From the mid-1960s European studies, predominantly the United Kingdom, reported elevated rates of psychotic disorders, particularly schizophrenia, in Afro-Caribbean immigrants. In the United States however, little is known about schizophrenia-risk for

immigrant Afro-Caribbean populations because distinction is often obscured with an Afro-American label.

Aim: This research efforts examined demographic, social, and environmental factors predicting risk for schizophrenia in Afro-Caribbean immigrants living in the United States.

Method: A correlational/predictive design using the National Survey of American Life data measured the following predictors: demographics, racism, social support, goal striving stress, and urbanicity.

Findings: Eighty-one of 1,438 participants (5.8%) were at risk for schizophrenia. Discrimination, material hardship, and number of children had a direct relationship to risk; social support and goal striving stress had an indirect relationship.

Conclusion: This supports the idea that mental health of Afro-Caribbean immigrants is compromised by the marginalized label of Black minority. Attention to this population, separate from Afro-Americans, is warranted to reduce health disparities.

Savannah Averya, Victoria Pama, Dr. Angie McDonald

School of Arts & Sciences

The purpose of this study is to discover the correlation between parenting styles and their impact on the development of at-risk behaviors in adolescents. In a longitudinal study of 5,345 youth who lived continuously with two parents and were surveyed based on 10 delinquent behaviors such as carrying a gun, stealing, and belonging to a gang were found to participate in these at-risk behaviors (Child Trends, 2016). These results confirm the hypothesis that authoritarian parenting can have negative effects on adolescents and lead to risky, delinquent behaviors. Our study is comprised of a survey administered to college age students. The participants were asked to answer a series of questions regarding the parenting style with which they were raised. They were also asked whether or not they participated in these behaviors as well as the attitude their parents had towards these at-risk behaviors.

Student and Faculty Oral Presentations

Rebekah Hansona

School of Arts & Sciences

Oral Presentation

Haile Selassie, who reigned for forty-four years over Ethiopia, has received his fair share of praise as being one of the most influential leaders of the 20th century; he worked to bring modernization to his country through social and economic reforms, however Haile Selassie should also be remembered for his dubious actions pertaining to the famine of 1972-75.

Julianna Davisa, Miranda Heita, Kimberly Wooda, Ashley Fravela, & Dr. David M. Compton

School of Arts & Sciences

Looking for a good time at the club? Try ketamine – side effects may include dissociation, hallucinations, and memory impairments. With the prevalent issue of drug abuse in society, research regarding the effects of ketamine, a frequent drug of abuse, has increased.

Despite its ability for misuse, ketamine has demonstrated potential as a fast-acting antidepressant and seems to work well at relieving treatment-resistant depression. However, previous research has demonstrated ketamine use may cause impairments in frontal and

medial temporal lobe functioning, leading to problems with working and episodic memory. While previous research has examined the short-term impacts of ketamine use, the present study used rat models to examine the long-term effects on memory caused by repeated ketamine use during late adolescence. The results indicated that low-ketamine dosed rats demonstrated significantly better spatial memory compared to high-ketamine dosed rats. In addition, high-ketamine dosed rats struggled with working memory more than the low-ketamine and control groups. This suggests that higher doses of ketamine during late adolescence may cause working and spatial memory impairments later in life.

Dr. Ciprian Stan1, Dr. Lívia Markóczy2, Dr. Sunny Li Sun3, & Dr. Mike Peng2

1Rinker School of Business; 2University of Texas at Dallas; 3University of Massachusetts – Lowell

A rich literature indicates that firm size and firm performance are the main determinants of CEO compensation. However, few papers explore the moderating effects affecting these relationships. Applying managerialism and agency theories within a market reform context, we argue that these main relationships may change depending on the level of marketization and controlling shareholder ownership. Based on the managerialism argument, we contend that the institutional changes that represent promarket economic reforms strengthen the relationships between firm size and performance on the one hand and CEO compensation on the other hand. We further suggest that controlling shareholders improve the alignment of interests between the CEO and shareholders by tying CEO compensation to firm performance according to agency predictions, but decouple the relationship between firm size and CEO compensation. Using a sample of Chinese listed firms between 2001 and 2006, we found that our results largely support these hypotheses.