Interdisciplinary Research Conference 2024

A Celebration of Scholarship

Issues of Faith, Moral Decisions and Environmental Stewardship

Tuesday, 9 – 9:20 a.m.

Elvir Cicekliᵃ

School of Ministry
Graduate student – PhD Program in Practical Theology

The Book of Concord speaks to the separation between “the Church from the people of the Law [i.e., Israel]” as being a distinction between “the church [as] a spiritual people” and Israel as “those born according to the flesh.” This idea of separation pervades the Christian imagination, especially in light of its doctrine of justification by faith which pins faith against flesh. Paul Griffiths offers an alternative picturoole of the Church’s relationship to Israel by his notion that “Israel includes the Church and the Synagogue.” With Griffith’s conception of Israel and his theology of flesh, I argue for a consideration of the function for Jesus’s Jewish flesh in the Church’s doctrine of justification by faith. This paper uses the analogy “Jesus of history and Christ of faith” from historical Jesus studies as a heuristic to consider the relationship between Jesus’s Jewish flesh and Christ’s body as the Church. This theme, in corroboration with new perspectives on justification, provides insights for understanding the doctrine of justification by faith that is encouraging for Christian-Jewish relations.

Tuesday, 9:20 – 9:40 a.m.

Dr. Wanjiru M. Gitau
School of Ministry

Recently, scholars have drawn attention to the stage of life known as emerging adulthood, where youth are no longer adolescents but have not fully embraced the roles of adulthood. Previous generations followed apparently normative pathways to adulthood, with key demarcations, expectations and accomplishments and cultural norms set by society. Today, the order in which adulthood roles are established has become variable. The theory of emerging adulthood considers the social, cultural and demographic transformations that have created this relatively new stage of life that is correlated with coming-of-age in a rapidly transmuting world. In psychological, sociological and practical theological literature, the constellation of demographic and phenomenological characteristics shaping this age has broadly been synthesized under five features. Emerging adulthood is seen as the age of identity explorations, the age of self-focus, the age of instability, the age of feeling-in-between and the age of possibilities. My paper collects and synthesizes psychological and sociological research on this subject, with an interest in spiritual, pedagogical and curricula questions for the typical Christian college age student.

Tuesday, 9:40 – 10 a.m.

Jenna Skeltonᵃ, Taylor Gerrityᵃ, William de Meloᵇ, and Dr. Chandrima Powers¹

Undergraduate student – Department of Psychology
Undergraduate student (degree conferred) – Soka University of America

Barnum’s effect demonstrates that people easily believe false feedback about their personality, especially if, they are positive. We hypothesized that vague feedback would significantly affect decision-making. 122 Participants were asked to draw a cow and were assured that the details of this cow could predict their personality. We gave control, moral, or social construal feedback about their personality traits in three between-subject conditions. In high moral construal feedback conditions, they are almost always inclined to take” morally correct/superior actions. Meanwhile, in high social construal feedback conditions, they are almost always inclined to take action to help most people. We examined its effect on decision-making in nine ethical dilemma scenarios (social, political, medical, financial, family, religious, educational, relationship and friendship) along with locus of control and other demographics. Overall, there was a significant interaction between the three conditions (control, moral, social) and locus of control across all dilemmas F(2, 70) = 5.203 p < .01. These results show how people can easily be influenced by false positive feedback about themselves and unknowingly make essential moral decisions according to it.

Tuesday, 10 – 10:20 a.m.

Frida Alsterhemᵃᵇ, Fabrizio Parragaᵃᶜ, Delaney Hetzerᵃᵇ, Kaden Hultgrenᵃᵇ, Christiane Antonᵃᵈ, Mathias Moldjordᵃᵇᵈ, Savanna Seldesᵃᵈ, Alianna Marinoᵃᵇ, and Dr. Emily Webster

ᵃUndergraduate student – ᵇBusiness Management; ᶜInternational Business; ᵈMarketing

This research investigates overconsumption trends and sustainability concerns among college students, proposing a nationwide campaign as a solution. Alarming anecdotal evidence
highlights the environmental impact of excessive clothing and
sports equipment purchases, further emphasizing the need for action. According to our study, a survey of 148 college students
revealed that 70% prioritize environmental concerns regarding
sustainability. Specifically increase in waste, rising costs and
overconsumption itself.

Additionally, qualitative data from students,
coaches and staff interviews underscores a growing campus
movement demanding sustainable practices and community driven solutions. Recognizing college campuses emphasize consumerism, the proposed campaign “THROW IT BACK” aims
to empower students, faculty and the local community towards
sustainable choices. The campaign potentially can reduce textile
waste and its associated environmental impact. Further, promote
sustainable consumption habits within the college community. While fostering a sense of community and shared responsibility for
consumer well-being. This research and associated campaign aim
to Inspire a broader societal shift towards conscious consumption
and resource management across college campuses nationwide.

Keynote Address

Tuesday, 11 a.m. – 12 p.m.

Krystal C. White

School of Liberal Arts and Sciences – Psychology

University of Oxford 2023-2024 MSt in Theology, concentration in Science and Religion. Peter Harrison Scholarship

Hebrew University of Jerusalem 2021-2023 M.S. in Genetics, 99% average. Excellence Scholarship for Masters Students

Palm Beach Atlantic University 2017-2021 B.S. with a major in Biblical and Theological Studies, a major in Behavioral Neuroscience, a minor in Mathematicsa 4.0 GPA. 

Outstanding Student, School of Ministry. Outstanding Student, School of Liberal Arts and Sciences

Krystal White graduated from PBA in 2021 with a B.S. in Biblical and Theological Studies and Behavioral Neuroscience. After graduating, she moved to Jerusalem to serve in international student ministry and conduct ground-breaking research on human evolution, receiving an M.S. in Genetics from Hebrew University in 2023. Krystal is currently working on a master’s in theology from the University of Oxford where she researches topics at the intersection of faith and science. Krystal hopes to continue serving in ministry internationally while producing resources for Christians interested in relating their faith to modern science.

Invited Speaker

Tuesday, 1 – 1:25 p.m.

Dr. David Horkott

Department of Philosophy – School of Liberal Arts and Sciences

Thomas Kuhn’s seminal work, “The Structure of Scientific Revolutions,” has had a profound and enduring influence on the philosophy of science since its publication in 1962. This presentation will illuminate Kuhn’s ideas, assess their legacy and

explore their continued relevance in contemporary philosophical discourse. Kuhn’s concept of scientific revolutions and paradigm shifts has challenged traditional views of scientific progress, proposing that scientific development is punctuated by periods of revolutionary change rather than continual, linear accumulation of knowledge. This presentation will focus initially on the role of anomalies and crises in scientific revolutions. The presentation will conclude by comparing Kuhn’s “The Structure of Scientific Revolutions” to W.V.O. Quine’s “Two Dogmas of Empiricism” with a view toward analyzing intersections and divergence.

Audience Review of Posters

Tuesday, 1:50 – 2:10 p.m.

Niang Thangᵃ and Dr. Don McCulloch¹

ᵃ Undergraduate student – Psychology
¹ Department of Psychology – School of Liberal Arts and Sciences

Perspective and reason have long been attributed to the abstract and spiritual side of the spectrum of science and religion. Enlightened scholars, including Descartes and Plato, introduced these concepts through a philosophical lens to better comprehend these ideas. Despite their philosophical background, modern research has introduced an alternative method to understand these concepts through a scientific lens such as neuroscience and chemistry. Particularly, the main focus of this research is analyzing whether certain chemical interactions influence the neural processing of perspective and reason. Thus, this research offers a meta-analysis of a variety of experiments conducted through various scientific methods. This approach will verify if it is possible to obtain a scientific understanding behind the constructs of perspective and reason as opposed to a philosophical one. The findings of this research may open a gateway for new potential experiments to be conducted and for moral and ethical questions that target the involvement of science in philosophical matters.

Tuesday, 2:10 – 2:30 p.m.

Hannah Hutchinsᵃ, Dr. Kristiann Dougherty¹, and Dr. David Compton²

ᵃUndergraduate student, Department of Psychology, Behavioral Neuroscience Major – School of Liberal Arts and Sciences
¹ Department of Biology – School of Liberal Arts and Sciences
² Department of Psychology – School of Liberal Arts and Sciences

Chemically engineered agricultural products such as pesticides, insecticides and herbicides, although used considerably for both industrialized and personal agricultural use, have recently been associated with a variety of serious human health disorders. This systematic review aims to accumulate and analyze research from the last ten years, focusing specifically on the effects of acute and chronic exposure to glyphosate-based herbicide products such as Round-up as associated with the formation of various neurological disorders. Specifically, this review focuses on laboratory research that uses animal models or human cell cultures as well as epidemiological studies. It associates exposure to glyphosate or glyphosate-based products with the formation or exacerbation of neurological disorders such as Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, seizures and autism. In addition, it examines the correlation between the gut-brain axis, exposure to glyphosate and the formation of neurodegeneration.

Tuesday, 2:30 – 2:50 p.m.

Kayla Brightᵃ

ᵃUndergraduate student, Department of Psychology, Behavioral Neuroscience Major – School of Liberal Arts and Sciences

Estimations and statistics suggest that almost half of individuals in the United States have low health literacy (Andrulis and Brach, 2007). Health literacy is a determinant related to how an individual understands, processes and acts on medical information. Research shows that a poor ability to comprehend medical information leads to a passive and inadequate approach to one’s own health (Schillinger, 2021). Low health literacy also leads to health disparities across specific groups, which impacts the healthcare system overall. Previous studies recognize race, socioeconomic status, culture, language and education as the most influential factors on health literacy (Schillinger, 2021). This study seeks to build on previous research by investigating additional personal life factors that have the strongest correlation with low health literacy. This study also seeks to expand research by measuring general anxiety, determining if a correlation can be demonstrated between anxiety and levels of health literacy.

Invited Student Presentation

Tuesday, 3 – 3:30 p.m.

Brody Eldrige

Undergraduate student – English School of Liberal Arts and Sciences

Examining the timeline of the publication of Sherlock Holmes and the murders of Jack the Ripper, a correlation appears between Holmes’s rise in popularity and the social response to Jack the Ripper. Through analyzing the historical context surrounding Holmes and Jack, the necessary Holmes texts and correlative periodical articles, among other primary texts, it seems that Holmes fills a social need of the time for an unerring detective. Comparing the common description of Holmes, his skills included, to the Victorian understanding of Jack the Ripper’s description, a clear thesis and anti-thesis relationship emerges between the two. Not only did Holmes parrot the public’s arguments against late-Victorian police detectives, but he also, over time, molded the public’s perception of these detectives.

Issues in Business, Economics and AI

Wednesday, 9 – 9:20 a.m.

Dr. Cora Barnhart

Department of Economics – Marshall E. Rinker Sr. School of Business

Rapid changes occurring in innovative technologies and their potential to impact so many different aspects of life require instructors to find ways to help students better understand implications of these changes. One approach suitable for this purpose is the Trinity-based model of innovation which examines how the three phases of the innovation process (invention, commercial viability and market significance) corresponds with characteristics possessed by the three members of the Trinity (God the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit) in the salvation process. This article reviews and extends this model, identifying topics and concepts in economics, finance and other areas of business where instructors can use the model to show students how the Trinity can further inform the development and usage of innovation for Christian entrepreneurs and other working professionals. The article then applies the model to a variety of adopted, abandoned and emerging innovations to help students develop a process that can distinguish the traits of “successful” innovations from those of failures.

Wednesday, 9:20 – 9:40 a.m.

Dr. Ciprian Stan¹, Dr. David Smith², and Dr. Emmanuel Mwaungulu³

Undergraduate student – English
School of Liberal Arts and Sciences
¹ Department of Management, Marketing, and International Business – Marshall E. Rinker, Sr. School of Business
² Associate Dean, Rinker School of Business and Professor of Management – Marshall E. Rinker, Sr. School of Business
³ Department of Accounting, Finance, Economics, and Data Analytics – Marshall E. Rinker, Sr. School of Business

This study examines the effects of CEO entrenchment on the likelihood of pursuing (1) environmental, social and governance (ESG) activities, or (2) strategic corporate social responsibility (SCSR) efforts. We show that entrenched CEOs are more likely to invest in activities beyond profitability, such as sustainability and social change. Therefore, our research questions are: 1) do entrenched CEOs engage more in ESG activities, 2) do entrenched CEO’s engage more in SCSR activities, 3) what role does a strong board of directors play in coaligning the interests of the principals with those of the agents and 4) do celebrity CEOs engage in legacy building by investing in ESG or SCSR. We employ secondary data from firms listed in the SandP 500 and utilize comparative and regression statistics analyses. The aim to determine whether aging CEOs are more likely to focus on doing the “right thing”, by engaging in either ESG or SCSR. In addition, we consider two moderators: corporate governance, represented here by an independent board and Celebrity CEO status can moderate the actions of the CEO.

Wednesday, 9:40 – 10 a.m.

Dr. Emmanuel Mwaungulu¹ and Dr. Ciprian Stan²

¹ Department of Accounting, Finance, Economics, and Data Analytics – Marshall E. Rinker, Sr. School of Business
² Department of Management, Marketing, and International Business – Marshall E. Rinker, Sr. School of Business

This study explores the influence of community-level social capital on human behavior and its reflection on the practices and performance of nonprofit organizations. Drawing from social norms theory and analyzing a dataset of 372,000 nonprofit filings from 2011 to 2017, our findings reveal a positive and significant relationship between social capital and nonprofit performance metrics, specifically return on assets and program ratio. Conversely, we identify a negative relationship between social capital and leverage, although this relationship is not statistically significant. Further analysis examines the moderating role of nonprofit governance on these dynamics. This study adds to the existing body of literature by delineating the impact of community-level social capital on nonprofits across critical financial indicators, offering nuanced insights into the interplay between social capital and organizational financial health.

Wednesday, 10:10 – 10:30 a.m.

Dr. Michael Kolta

Department of Computer Science – School of Liberal Arts and Sciences

We begin with the ubiquity of computers and software, then move on to Christian ethics in software and AI usage and design and conclude with a call to action. We search for what the Bible (both Old and New Testament) has to say about modern issues, such as content “sharing”, seemingly endless notifications and letting computers make decisions on our behalf. Ethical evaluations of these modern issues often change when Biblical principles are considered. We encourage users to use software ethically via example. We encourage designers to design software for ethical use and provide examples. In some cases, perhaps AI can “learn” directly from the Bible, especially Jesus’ parables and apply that “knowledge” to modern scenarios.

Wednesday, 10:30 – 10:50 a.m.

Madeline Marie Nettles

Graduate student – School of Ministry

David Chalmers has recently defended the controversial claim that life in a virtual world can be just as meaningful as life in our nonvirtual world. I argue that this results in an even more controversial claim, that such arguments from virtual reality actually make the existence of God more likely. Chalmers argues that the meaning in a virtual world is transferred from the meaning of the non-virtual world by the programmer. This makes it difficult to resist the theist claim that the meaning of the non-virtual world is transferred in by a divine programmer. Thus, an openness towards this claim emerges for those who uphold an atheistic perspective. Through admitting the plausibility of a divine programmer, the atheist finds themself on the brink of accepting theism. Analysis of the simulation hypothesis causes one to conclude that facts about the meaning of non-virtual life are necessarily grounded in facts about a programmer of the non-virtual world. Therefore, despite his atheistic perspective, Chalmers’ arguments for the meaning of virtual reality aid in supporting an argument for theism.

Wednesday, 10:50 – 11:10 a.m.

Dr. Henry Webb

Department of Management, Marketing and International Business – Marshall E. Rinker, Sr. School of Business

This article explores the potential of the Fulbright Specialist Program to advance international legal education. Drawing from his personal experience teaching law courses at the Jigme Singye Wangchuck School of Law near Paro, Bhutan during the Fall 2023 semester, Professor Henry Webb provides a comprehensive guide to (a) leveraging the Fulbright Specialist Program for the purpose of advancing international legal education; (b) the application process for joining the Fulbright Specialist Roster and securing a project with a host institution; (c) pre-departure logistics; and (d) notes from his onsite experience in Bhutan.

Special Guest

Wednesday, 11:15 – 11:45 a.m.

Dr. Thomas Parham

Department of Visual and Media Arts – Colleges of the Arts

Auteur theory in film criticism posits the director as primary author of a cinematic text, which asserts his or her creative vision. In television, a series creator or “showrunner” can be viewed as an auteur, especially when that writer/producer guides the show from beginning to end across several seasons. Although progressive series, such as The Prisoner, Battlestar Galactica (1978) and Hill

Street Blues, have existed as far back as the 1960s, serialized dramas and comedies dominate scripted television in the early Twenty-First Century.

This researcher proposes to explore how Star Trek: Deep Space Nine—the second live-action spinoff of Gene Roddenberry’s iconic 1960s series—became the first in the franchise to eschew “planet of the week” episodes and adopt serialized storytelling. DS9 set a template that its numerous successors—Voyager, Enterprise, Discovery, Picard, Lower Decks, Prodigy and Strange New Worlds—have followed to varying degrees as Paramount+ uses Star Trek series to recruit and retain viewers for the premium streaming service in an ever-crowded marketplace.

Session for Educators

Wednesday, 1 – 1:20 p.m.

Dr. Jill East and Dr. Marcia Bedasse

Department of Education – School of Education and Behavioral Studies

This research study delves into the multifaceted realm of self-efficacy among preservice teachers, seeking to comprehensively explore and understand the contributing factors to their sense of empowerment. By acknowledging the pivotal role of self-efficacy in shaping teaching efficacy and overall professional development, this study employs a quantitative methods approach to capture the nuances of preservice teachers’ experiences. The investigation unfolds against the backdrop of evolving educational landscapes and the increasing demands placed on educators. Through a quantitative analysis of self-efficacy beliefs, the study aims to identify the key determinants influencing preservice teachers’ confidence in their ability to meet the challenges of the classroom environment. Additionally, it examines the impact of educational interventions and training programs on enhancing self-efficacy and, consequently, the efficacy of teaching practices. Findings from this research contribute valuable insights to teacher education programs, curriculum development and professional development initiatives. By understanding the intricate interplay of self-efficacy factors, educators can tailor interventions that empower preservice teachers and foster a resilient and confident group of preservice educators who are prepared to navigate the complexities of 21st-century classrooms. Ultimately, this study seeks to inspire a new era of teacher preparation. One that places self-efficacy at the forefront of shaping the next generation of proficient and empowered educators.

Wednesday, 1:20 – 1:40 p.m.

Cienna Oniwaᵃ

School of Liberal Arts and Sciences Undergraduate student – Computer Science

This research investigates the impact of educational tools designed for students with disabilities in first- and third-world communities. In addition to analyzing the effectiveness of existing tools, the study aims to develop a comprehensive assessment tool to strengthen cognitive and physical learning. By synthesizing data from both contexts, this tool will provide an understanding of the unique needs of students with disabilities in each area, further enhancing the inclusivity of educational interventions. All in all, the findings contribute valuable insights for policymakers, educators and advocates, offering a holistic approach to enhancing inclusivity and bridging educational gaps.

Physiological, Mental and Spiritual Health Session

Wednesday, 1:50 – 2:10 p.m.

Dr. Elias B. Chahine¹, Ricardo M. Nunez-Medinaᵃ, Kiara Williamsᵃ, Dr. Jennifer Kuretski², and Dr. Harm Maarsingh¹

¹ Department of Pharmacy Practice – Lloyd L. Gregory School of Pharmacy
² School of Nursing
ᵃ Graduate student – Lloyd L. Gregory School of Pharmacy

BACKGROUND: Advances in antiretroviral therapy (ART) enable people with HIV to live longer lives. However, older people with HIV (OPWH) are more susceptible to toxicity associated with ART. Racial and ethnic minorities have social determinants of health, which increase their risks of poor outcomes. METHODS: A retrospective observational study was conducted on patients receiving care at two HIV clinics in Florida. The primary endpoint was the percentage of OPWH with undetectable viral load throughout the study. 

RESULTS: A total of 116 White, 42 Black and 40 Hispanic OPWH were included. Most patients (97%) were receiving ART. Of these, the percentage with undetectable viral load was lower among Black (61.8%) compared to White (85.8%; p < 0.01) or Hispanic (83.3%; p < 0.05) patients. Similarly, throughout the study, the percentage with undetectable viral load was lower among Black (61.6%) compared to White (84.7%; p < 0.05) or Hispanic (83.3%; p = 0.12) patients. 

CONCLUSION: Fewer Black OPWH had undetectable viral load upon enrollment and throughout the study compared to White or Hispanic OPWH, suggesting the need to provide more targeted interventions for Black patients.

Wednesday, 2:10 – 2:30 p.m.

Professor Debbie Manigat

Department of Counselor Education – School of Education and Behavioral Studies

The journey of becoming a masterful family therapist is lifelong. It is a discovery of clinical refinement as we explore new relational therapy theories, infuse systemic thinking in other vocations like ministry or spiritual direction and find new tools to better serve families. Each time that we meet with families, parents and/or children, we gain priceless insights. It is in these moments that therapists must balance leveraging our experiences and letting go of our agenda to meet families where they are with compassion and empathy. With a therapeutic lens established in infant mental health (IMH) and family therapy, the researcher concludes that counselors and clinical trainees can cultivate a conscious approach to building authentic therapeutic relationships and treatment experiences with families- intergenerationally. Furthermore, by centering on the transformation that occurs in attachment relationships, IMH and family therapy fosters a systemic mindset on prevention, cultural responsiveness, palliative care, integrated maternity care, child development and when applicable, infant loss support. We are truly being clinically cultured by each session and made professionally alive!

Wednesday, 2:30 – 2:50 p.m.

Dr. Fabio Aguiar Alves¹, Gabriela Guimaraes de Oliveira Alvesᵃ, Miguel Paz Soutoᵃ, and Chiemeka Fevecqueᵃ

¹ Department of Pharmacy Practice – Lloyd L. Gregory School of Pharmacy
ᵃ Graduate student – Lloyd L. Gregory School of Pharmacy

Staphylococcus aureus is a common opportunistic pathogen and some strains can form biofilms making this pathogen resistant to the immune system. This study aimed to verify the bactericidal, bacteriostatic and anti-biofilm activity of two pyrazole-tetrazole derivatives, against a clinical Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolate. Two pyrazole-tetrazole hybrids compounds were synthesized (JVS02 and JVS05). The prediction of pharmacokinetic features suggested that both possess favorable properties, including high gastrointestinal absorption and blood-brain barrier permeability. The molecule JVS 05 inhibited the growth of S. aureus at 64 μg/mL and JVS 02 at 128 μg/mL, also JVS 05 proved to be more efficient than JVS02 to prevent biofilm formation. JVS 02 and JVS 05 promoted an increase in the gene expression of virulence factors mostly associated with the biosynthesis and establishment of the biofilm. This data shows the implications of the drug on the many biosynthetic processes leading to biofilm formation. Hitherto, the pyrazole-tetrazole JVS 05 demonstrated efficacy both in inhibiting the growth of S. aureus and in acting against its biofilm formation, as well as its destruction.

Wednesday, 2:50 – 3:10 p.m.

Nathan Housenᵃ and Dr. Matthew J. Mitchell¹

ᵃ Undergraduate student, Exercise Science major, Department of Health and Human Performance
¹ Department of Health and Human Performance – School of Education and Behavioral Studies

Baseball pitching is known to be an unnatural motion that leads to increased risk of injury. Fourteen collegiate baseball pitchers participated in this study. Subjects threw 2 pitch types (fastball and curve) during 2 different pitching motions (leg lift and slide step). Gastrocnemius muscle (GM)activation was found to vary based on the pitch type rather than the pitching delivery. There was a significant correlation between GM motor unit activation and fastball spin rates, though no other correlations were statistically significant.

Wednesday, 3:10 – 3:30 p.m.

Chloe Smithᵃ and Matthew J. Mitchell¹

ᵃ Undergraduate student – Health and Human Performance
¹ Department of Health and Human Performance – School of Education and Behavioral Studies

This study examined whether 6 weeks of exercise training causes improvements in cardiovascular function regarding heart rate variability (HRV) and muscle oxygen saturation (SmO2) in subjects undergoing cancer treatment in the Cancer-Related Fatigue Program at Palm Beach Atlantic University. Cardiovascular function will be evaluated both before and after the 8-week program. The HRV components of heart rate, frequencies, RR intervals, and the standard deviation of RR intervals (SDRRI) were recorded at rest. SmO2 will be measured during exercise by comparing pre and post-recovery values. Data analysis showed a significant decrease in HRV ratio (p = 0.03) and an increase in total SmO2 recovery percentage (p = 0.0034) post exercise. The data findings are a positive indicator that exercise training is a vital intervention in increasing cardiovascular function. Further research is needed to confirm the overall correlation of HRV and SmO2 recovery to increased cardiovascular function post-exercise.

Student and Faculty Poster Presentation Abstracts

Anna Laskarisᵃ, Nella Petersenᵃ, and Dr. Matthew Mitchell¹

ᵃ Undergraduate student – Health and Human Performance
¹ Department of Health and Human Performance – School of Education and Behavioral Studies

Ten volleyball players (5 beach, 5 indoor) performed drop jumps on a force plate (BTS BioEngineering, Italy) with both a hard and soft (sand surface). Vertical time to stabilization, distance of force movement and symmetrical stability in both groups and on both surfaces. The results showed that exclusive prolonged sand training did not indicate significant counteractive ankle stabilizing mechanisms for beach volleyball players when performing on rigid surfaces, although some differences were still evident. Sand training seemed to have only produced improvements on sand landings and not rigid surfaces.

Dr. Charles Wight¹, Dr. Matthew DellaVecchia¹, Dr. Monica Tadros², and Dr. Nicholas Chow³

¹ Department of Pharmacy Practice – Lloyd L. Gregory School of Pharmacy
² Miami Cancer Institute – Baptist Health South Florida
³ Pharmacovigilance Safety Evaluator – Food and Drug Administration

Background/Rationale: Standard pharmacy school oncology curricula thoroughly discuss treatment toxicities and patient education. “Financial toxicity” is an important component of patient education. This concept is not currently evaluated in pharmacy school curriculum. Objectives: This survey-based study is designed to assess the impact of assigned reading material and lecture-based practice discussions on pharmacy students’ knowledge and perceptions of the concept of “financial toxicity” in cancer care during an oncology pharmacotherapeutics course. Methods: During an oncology pharmacotherapeutics course, a pre-lecture questionnaire assessed baseline student knowledge of “financial toxicity” in cancer care. Students were assigned reading materials and had a formal lecture discussion on “financial toxicity.” A post-lecture questionnaire assessed changes in student perceptions. Results: 78 pharmacy students participated in the survey. Preinstruction, 23 students (29.5%) agreed/strongly agreed that they could clearly define the term “financial toxicity,” compared to 73 students (93.6%) post-instruction. There was a significant increase in student understand of all concepts of “financial toxicity” after instruction. Conclusion/Discussion: This study demonstrates the need for increased education on the concept of “financial toxicity” in oncology pharmacy curricula.

Graysen D. Boehning¹², Barbara Brunnick¹³, Stefan Harzen¹, and Amy C. Hirons²

¹ Taras Oceanographic Foundation, Jupiter, Florida, USA
² Halmos College of Arts and Science, Nova Southeastern University, Dania, Florida, USA
³ Palm Beach Atlantic University

Social patterns in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) are highly variable, dependent on habitat type, food availability and population size among other things. The narrow sandbanks of southeast Florida off the coast of Palm Beach and Broward Counties, nestled between the coastline and the Florida Current, are biologically productive and provide an ideal ecosystem to study dolphin behavior. The relationships among factors known to influence dolphin social behavior globally are poorly studied, this study analyzes associations within the open-ocean, semiclosed habitat in this region, allowing for better understanding of the diversity of dolphin social patterns. Half-weight index was used to compare association strength of 90 fully and partially resident dolphins in the region. Hierarchical cluster analysis revealed three loosely associated social sub-groups that were highly correlated to individual site-fidelity. While group size averaged 5.27 individuals per encounter, this was dependent on the composition of the group, with mixed encounters, that included both fulltime and part-time residents, significantly larger than those that included individuals of only one site-fidelity category. This may be indicative of more complex group dynamics when multiple subgroups interact, but more work on the behavioral effects of these encounters is needed. As threats in the region, such as boat traffic and toxic algae blooms, continue to increase, an understanding of how these dolphins associate with each other and/or neighboring groups could pave the way more effective conservation action. Key words: Tursiops; Dolphin; Social Patterns; Association; Florida.

Paola Freyreᵃ and Dr. Yolanda M. Hardy¹

ᵃ Graduate student – Lloyd L. Gregory School of Pharmacy
¹ Associate Dean of Academic Affairs, Assessment, and Accreditation – Lloyd L. Gregory School of Pharmacy

Multiple sclerosis (MS), one of the most common chronic disabling neurological diseases. The frequency of symptoms in which MS is experienced can vastly differ within ethnic groups. Some ethnic and minority groups such as Asian, Black/African American and NOTE: AUNDERGRADUATE, BGRADUATE Hispanic/Latino are underrepresented in research, which may lead to delayed diagnosis due to the thought that MS is less common in these groups. This study is focused on the differences in presentation of MS symptoms among minority and non-minority populations in the United States. A 15-item survey was created, posted for 2 weeks on r/Multiple Sclerosis Reddit group page. Granted permission by Reddit page moderators. 185 members of Reddit MS group page opened the survey and 133 completed it (72%). 62% percent of respondents were from the US. Average age was 40 years. Preliminary data showed that there was a clinical difference of symptoms within each race/ethnic group, with 50% of Hispanic/Latino reporting fatigue as the most common symptom prior to diagnosis, compared to 33% Asian and Black/ African American.

Professor Gregory J. Rummo

Department of Chemistry, Forensic Sciences, Oceanography, and Physics, School of Liberal Arts and Sciences

The Imago Dei, Latin for the image of God, is what sets humans apart from all other created beings. It is the “metaphysical expression, associated uniquely to humans, which signifies the symbolical connection between God and humanity.” Enlightening the minds of students through an awakening of an understanding of the Imago Dei can be as simple as playing a classic ‘70s soft rock song while they filter into the classroom and then briefly discussing it, a response to a Tweet, or a written essay on a current event in the field of health, social or pure science, where they have an opportunity to integrate a biblical worldview. In this presentation, I will showcase some of my students’ excerpts from their faith integration essays written for my Principles of GOB Chemistry class.

Jonah Robertsonᵃ, Taylor Kibbenᵃ,ᵇ, and Dr. Matthew Mitchell¹

ᵃ Undergraduate student – Health and Human Performance, Exercise Science
ᵇ Undergraduate student – Health and Human Performance
¹ Department of Health and Human Performance – School of Education and Behavioral Studies

Cold water immersion (CWI) has been increasingly used as one of the most common forms of rehabilitation and recovery by athletes in a variety of sports. The study consisted of 10 participants who completed one week of CWI with a 30-minute total (three 10-minute sessions on three separate days) and then completed one week of CWI with a 10-minute weekly total (three 3.5-minute sessions). Subjects completed a Profile of Mood States Survey before and after each CWI protocol. 10-min week CWI showed no difference in scores, In contrast the 30-minute CWI week showed significance (p = 0.0019) between the pre and post CWI scores.

Sebastian Darochᵃ and Dr. Cidya Grant¹

ᵃ Undergraduate student – Chemistry
¹ Department of Chemistry, Forensic Sciences, Oceanography, and Physics – School of Liberal Arts and Sciences

Alcian Yellow is an azo dye traditionally used for staining Helicobacter pylori. It is underexplored in the current literature and shares structural similarities with a prominent azole drug, ketoconazole. Azole drugs work by inhibiting CYP51, which is responsible for the synthesis of ergosterol, a necessary component of fungal cell membranes. Due to the frequent use of azoles in past years, fungal infections are becoming more resistant. There is therefore a need for novel antifungal agents and given Alcian Yellow’s characteristics, it is a good candidate. A culture of Candida albicans, a common yeast, will be grown to test the activity of Alcian Yellow. Differing concentrations of Alcian Yellow, Alcian Yellow metabolite and ketoconazole will be added to samples of Candida albicans and will be allowed to grow. Colony counts and spectrophotometric measurements will be performed periodically to determine the extent of growth inhibition. It is expected that ketoconazole will have the greatest inhibitory effect, Alcian Yellow will have no effect and Alcian Yellow metabolite will have a lesser but significant effect.

Anna Thompsonᵃ and Dr. Matthew J. Mitchell¹

ᵃ Undergraduate student – Health and Human Performance; Supper Honors
¹ Department of Health and Human Performance – School of Education and Behavioral Studies

This study evaluated whether percussive therapy utilized after intense exercise assisted in recovery of muscle contractile speed. Subjects participated in 2 trials. For both trials, subjects participated in a 25 minute stationary bike exercise regimen. For trial 1, subjects received percussive therapy post exercise, for trial 2 subjects received no therapy. Before and 24 hours after each trial, muscle contractile propertied of the Gastrocnemius lateralis (GL), rectus femoris (RF) and vastus medialis (VM) were assessed. The post-percussive therapy measurements showed an increased muscle contractile speed when compared to the control group.

Tazaleen Bacchusᵃ, Dr. Matthew Mitchell¹, and Nella Petersenᵃ

ᵃ Undergraduate student – Health and Human Performance
¹ Department of Health and Human Performance – School of Education and Behavioral Studies

Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is very common and is caused by compression of the median nerve in the carpal tunnel. Ergonomic computer mice have been introduced to replace the conventional mouse to encourage the wrist to be in a neutral position and INTERDISCIPLINARY RESEARCH CONFERENCE | 12 decrease repetitive compressive force on the median nerve, thus lessening CTS risk. Ten subjects utilized three slant angles of computer mice (- 0°, 33° and 57°) during a standard typing test. Motor unit activation, using electromyography (EMG) was measured in the Flexor Digitorum Superficialis and Pronator Teres muscles. No significant differences in mean EMG signals were found between slant angles.

Emily Johnsonᵃ, Dr. Angie McDonald¹, and Autumn Edmondsonᵃ

ᵃ Undergraduate student – Psychology
¹ Department of Psychology – School of Liberal Arts and Sciences

Physical punishment has been associated with negative outcomes (Afifi et al., 2006; Afifi et al., 2022; De Clercq et al., 2021; Maciel et al., 2012; Turner and Muller, 2004). However, research on other discipline methods has been limited. The current study explored the relationship between parental disciplinary methods and style(s) on adult well-being. Participants were 107 college students/staff, 18 to 38 years old (M = 20.02, SD = 2.25), 87 females, 21 males. An online survey included the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory (Rosenberg, 1965; α = .87); Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (Gross, 2003); discipline method inventory; Multidimensional Assessment of Parenting Styles [modified] (Parent and Forehand, 2017; α = .73); and Adverse Childhood Questionnaire (Kaiser, 1997; α = .72). Among the findings to be discussed are Calm Discussion was negatively associated with Broadband Negative Parenting (BNP) (r = -.451, p < .001). Yelling negatively correlated with Broadband Positive Parenting (r = -.402, p < .001) and Self-Esteem (r = .281, p = .004). Physical Punishment positively correlated with BNP (r = .393, p < .001).

Ethan Overton

Undergraduate student – Biology

Edges of ecosystems have different conditions than the interior portions and often provide good habitats for exotic plants to become established. Exotic plants spread from the edges of habitats throughout ecosystems, although principles of how this process works differ drastically by species and location. Little research looking at this relationship has been conducted in South Florida. In this study the nature of edges along fragmented natural areas in Palm Beach County, Florida were investigated to see how they influence exotic plant abundance and distribution. Edges were divided into three categories: road-habitat, residential-habitat and water-habitat edges. Residential-habitat edges had the highest relative abundance of exotic plants for both mid-story/canopy and ground species. This is likely because escaped ornamental plants are a leading cause of exotic plant invasions, suggesting that conservation efforts should focus on residential edges specifically when trying to limit exotic plant abundance. Despite this no significant difference was observed between the three different types of edges, suggesting that other abiotic and biotic factors play a bigger role in determining exotic plant abundance on edges.

Aubrey L. Holloway¹ᵃ, Dr. Archie W. Ammons², and Dr. Angela D. Witmer¹

ᵃUndergraduate student – Marine Biology
¹ Department of Biology, School of Liberal Arts and Sciences
² Department of Biology, Palm Beach State University

The nearshore ocean bottom off West Palm Beach, Florida comprises both sandy and hard bottom marine habitats. Our study aimed to elucidate the ichythofaunal community structure within and between these areas. We hypothesize that the hard bottom reef will exhibit increased species richness and abundance compared to the sandy bottom. We also hypothesize that there is an ecotone bridge between both habitats. Our study deployed BRUVS (Baited Remote Underwater Videos) within three nearshore zones: shallow soft bottom, deep soft bottom and hard bottom reef. Ichthyofaunal community structure was measured using MaxN. A total of 217 organisms from 34 different taxa were observed. The hard bottom reef had the highest number of taxa and abundance. The deep soft bottom had a lower number of taxa but higher abundance than the shallow soft bottom. Overall, the shallow soft bottom and deep soft bottom were similar to each other, but the hard bottom hosted a different community from both sandy sites, indicating that the deep soft bottom does not serve as an ecotone bridge.

Dr. John Dougherty¹, Dr. Nisha Mathew², Dr. Shay Marchionne¹³, and Dr. Madison King

¹ Department of Pharmacy Practice, Lloyd L. Gregory School of Pharmacy
² Cleveland Clinic Florida – Director of Medication Safety Services
³ Pharmacy, Publix Supermarket

Data, from an electronic medical record, were evaluated from May 2022 through September 2022. Patients with glucose values > 300 mg/dL were evaluated for meeting CMS criteria for hyperglycemia. A hyperglycemic event was defined as a day with at least one blood glucose value > 300 mg/dL; OR a day where a blood glucose was not measured and it was preceded by two consecutive days where at least one glucose value during each of the two days was ≥ 200 mg/dL One hundred twenty patients were studied. The patients were distributed among the three hospitals as follows 40 (T), 40 (S) and 40 (N). The average (range) patient age, BMI and HbA1c were 71 years old (30-92 years old), 30.6 kg/m2 (13.7-54.7 kg/m2), 8.97% (5.3-15.9%), respectively. The average number of days counted towards glycemic eCQM measures was 7 days. The average (range) percentage of hyperglycemia exposure (by day) was 60% (10%-100%). The average percentage of uncontrolled glucose (days) was 62.7% in patients on systemic steroids compared to 50.7% of patients not on systemic steroids (p = 0.012)

Dr. Justine Latif¹, Dr. Mariette Sourial¹, Dr. Samantha Axtell¹, Mayra Perez Chavaca, and Emiliette Fortia

¹ Department of Pharmacy Practice – Lloyd L. Gregory School of Pharmacy
a Graduate Student (P2) – Lloyd L. Gregory School of Pharmacy

In current literature, access to medical care and/or screening for conditions is very limited in medically underserved regions, such as El Salvador. Due to the lack of access to medical care, many patients live with unknown and/or untreated conditions that can lead to fatal consequences. Out of the top 10 most causes of death in El Salvador, 7 of the 10 are non-communicable diseases. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) Guidelines for routine medical screening for lipid disorders, hypertension and abdominal aortic aneurysm should begin for men >35 years and women >45 years. The American Diabetes Association recommends screening for diabetes or prediabetes in asymptomatic adults at the age of 35 with no risk factors. As patients in El Salvador may not have adequate access to guideline-recommended screenings, the purpose of this study is to screen patients via point of care (POC) testing to identify the absence or presence of certain medical conditions who would otherwise not undergo such screening.

Savannah Carr

Undergraduate student – Psychology

With an increase in energy supplements and drinks on the market, there is an increase in caffeine use and its prevalence among college students. Studies have shown this increase in use, with one showing college students drinking twice the safely recommended amount (McIlvain et. al, 2013). This study aims to highlight which college majors are at a higher risk of developing caffeine dependency. A survey will analyze the amount of caffeine consumed daily, cross-analyzed with each participant’s majors. The amount of caffeine as reported consumed by the participant will be compared to what the Food and Drug Administration has set as the daily recommended serving. Keywords: caffeine, dependency, addiction, college major.

Danielle Garzonᵃ, Alissa Stranbergᵇ, Dr. Jackie Esquiaqui¹, and Dr. Tina Batoh²

ᵃ Undergraduate student – Medicinal and Biological Chemistry
ᵇ Graduate student – Health Sciences
¹ Department of Chemistry
² Department of Biology

Florida Red Tide is a harmful algal bloom caused by the marine dinoflagellate Karenia brevis. mRNA precursors of enzymes involved in brevetoxin synthesis undergo an mRNA maturation mechanism called spliced leader (SL) trans-splicing, which splices a 5ʹ exon (the SL) from a small noncoding RNA (snRNA) to the 5ʹ end of premRNA sequences of different genes. Details of this mechanism, particularly how SL RNA structural dynamics impact transcription and splicing, are limited and could provide insight to understanding critical steps of K. brevis life-cycle and toxin production at the molecular level. To study the structure and dynamics of K. brevis SL RNA, both in vitro and cell-based research strategies have been conducted. Synthetic RNAs for the wild-type spliced-leader have been successfully tested using electrophoretic mobility shift assays to probe for the impact of various environmental factors (i.e. pH, salinity, light and temperature) on SL RNA structures. Additionally, live K. brevis cells were successfully cultured and total cell RNA was extracted for enrichment studies including RNA polyadenylation purification and capture assay experiments.

Graysen D. Boehning¹², Barbara Brunnick¹³, Stefan Harzen¹, and Amy C. Hirons²

¹ Taras Oceanographic Foundation, Jupiter, Florida, USA
² Halmos College of Arts and Science, Nova Southeastern University, Dania, Florida, USA
³ Palm Beach Atlantic University

The coastal bottlenose dolphin is well studied throughout its natural range, though most research focuses on wide, well-protected habitats such as bays and estuaries, rather than on narrow coastal sandbanks. This study identifies a residential group of coastal bottlenose dolphins utilizing the Northwestern Atlantic waters off the coast of Palm Beach County, Florida, USA. From 2014-2020, 313 boat surveys were conducted and 585 individual dolphins were identified using photo identification. Using seasonal and annual resighting ratios, 24 dolphins were considered full-time residents, 66 dolphins were considered part-time residents and 478 dolphins were transient. The presence of individuals with high site-fidelity indicates that the region is used as a permanent habitat for some individuals, while the presence of transient animals may indicate a possible bridge between populations living to the north and south of the region. Key words: Tursiops; Dolphin; Site-Fidelity; Resighting; Florida.

Dr. Krisy Thornby and Dr. Keri Mack

Department of Pharmacy Practice – Lloyd L. Gregory School of Pharmacy

ChatGPT was intentionally integrated into a second-year drug information (DI) pharmacy course. The objective was to evaluate the accuracy, completeness and elegance of information provided by ChatGPT 3.5 in comparison to standard resources. Using a process-oriented-guided-inquiry-learning (POGIL) pedagogy, students in six groups of five, engaged in comparative analyses, evaluating responses for depth of information, relevance to pharmacy practice and clarity of communication via a 5-point NOTE: AUNDERGRADUATE, BGRADUATE INTERDISCIPLINARY RESEARCH CONFERENCE | 14 Likert scale (1-poor to 5-excellent). Ten questions throughout four different modules were assigned for students to answer during in-class exercises. Through this process, 100% (N=30) completion was achieved. ChatGPT consistently received higher scores in the elegance category. Overall, lower scores were yielded for accuracy and completeness, especially for the clinical practice guideline and primary literature questions. The introduction of ChatGPT not only refined students’ research skills but also helped develop a critical understanding of AI-generated content within the context of DI. The project highlighted the strengths and limitations of ChatGPT in delivering drug-related information, preparing future pharmacists to navigate evolving technology while upholding competence standards expected as medication experts.

Jonathan Oliverᵃ and Dr. Angela D. Witmer¹

ᵃUndergraduate student – Department of Biology
¹ Department of Biology – School of Liberal Arts and Sciences

Tides rise and fall with the lunar cycle and cause waves to wash over the beach face and sediment is slowly eroded away. Beach nourishment events replaced lost on beaches. For benthic organisms, large amounts of sand can be detrimental as they must migrate vertically to return to their preferred depth. In this study we examined the ongoing effects of beach nourishment on benthic macrofauna in Palm Beach, Fl. Four shore-parallel transects were established 50 meters apart. with core samples were every 5 meters. 75 sand samples were collected off of the coast of West Palm Beach. These samples were sieved on site then sorted in the lab . 112 benthic macrofauna were identified from 27 taxa. 65% of the collected benthic community were found to be from 5 taxa, including: Eurydice personata (34.2%), Ancinus depressus (9.9%), Scolelepis squamata (8.1%), Haustorius jayneae (7.2%) and Armandia agilis (5.4%). It was found that there was a greater abundance of species further sampled from the shore. Both taxonomic richness and abundance increased the greater the distance from the shoreline.

Dr. Melissa C. Selinger¹, Dr. David M. Compton²³, Dr. Hamilton Morris⁴, and Dr. Timothy J. Canty¹

¹ Manhattan Restorative Health Sciences, New York, NY 10017
² Department of Psychology, School of Liberal Arts and Sciences
³ Behavioral Neuroscience Program, School of Liberal Arts and Sciences
⁴ Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Saint Joseph’s University, Philadelphia, PA 19104

The management of patients with concomitant chronic pain (CP) and Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) remains challenging for clinicians. Current chronic pharmacologic management is often unsuccessful, or has intolerable side effects to the patients. While not restricted to patients with chronic pain, these patients are often diagnosed with depression, presenting with symptoms such as poor mood, anhedonia and altered cognitive processes. It is estimated that a substantial proportion of treated patients do not derive a substantive benefit from traditional pharmacological treatments for depression. The present study involved a retrospective review of cases, exploring the patient-reported satisfaction with and tolerability of a novel use of virtual reality (VR), coined KVR, as an adjunct to intravenous ketamine infusion therapies. Specifically, the ketamine-virtual reality protocol was employed as a potential adjunctive intervention for patients suffering from chronic pain and depression. Visual Analog Scores (VAS) associated with pain were significantly lower on the third than on the first assessment day. Montgomery–Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) scores improved following infusion and across days (i.e., sessions). Lastly, 2/3 of patients preferred the use of VR with their ketamine infusion. The results are considered in terms of implementing prospective studies to examine whether the combination therapies have a synergistic benefit and the nature and magnitude of clinically meaningful treatment effects, if any.

Maleah Mosesᵃ, Jenna Skeltonᵃ, Willam de Meloᵇ, and Dr. Chandrima Powers¹

ᵃ Undergraduate student – Department of Psychology
ᵇ Undergraduate student (degree conferred) – Soka University of America
¹ Department of Psychology – School of Liberal Arts and Sciences

This is a research proposal for follow-up studies. Study 1a (Cowdrawing Study) hypothesized and showed that vulnerable people could easily be influenced by false positive feedback (Barnum effect) about themselves and unknowingly make essential moral decisions according to it. A Follow-up Study 1b (QuestionnaireRanking study) will be conducted to replicate the relationship in this hypothesis using a different methodology. Participants will receive a fake personality test (instead of a cow-drawing test) with high moral or social construal feedback. We will examine its effect using a scaled moral dilemma survey instead of the binary forcedchoice scenarios used in Study 1 a. We will again look at the locus of Control, other demographics and finally, gullibility as a mediator variable. This will be followed by Study 2 (consumer study), which will provide false feedback on cognitive regulation and cognitive and decision-making skills and examine their effect on consumer decision-making. The effect of false positive feedback can extend beyond personality to cognitive skills and can influence essential decision-making skills in participants.

Dr. David M. Compton and Kileigh Schultz-Hansenᵃ

ᵃ Department of Psychology, School of Liberal Arts and Sciences
Undergraduate student – Behavioral Neuroscience

Many individuals enjoy consuming film content that includes elements that evoke fear or even terror. Such films include horror, science fiction and existential threats such as pandemics. While different reasons for these interests exist, past research has indicated that such interests may serve as models that provide possibly relevant information and potential strategies if versions of such stories become real-world realities. The multi-year COVID-19 included a period of worldwide existential threat, severe economic disruption and profound fear-inducing events. Thus, the pandemic provided an opportunity to determine whether engagement with films that included horror and pandemic films was related to both higher levels of readiness for real pandemics and positively impacted psychological resilience among such consumers. Therefore, in the present investigation, we sought to determine the specific contributions of morbid curiosity, individual preferences in film interests and personality, as well as the control variables of gender and education on the personal effects of the pandemic, including self-rated preparedness and psychological resilience. Specifically, a primary goal was to determine the amount of variance in the psychological resilience and preparedness scores accounted for by the morbid curiosity of the individual and the morbid curiosity of the participant after partialling out the contributions of gender, education and the personality of the participant. Similarly, we sought to determine the amount of variance in the psychological resilience and preparedness scores accounted for by the film interests of the participant and the film interests of the participant after partialling out the contributions of gender, education and personality. Aspects of morbid curiosity, personality traits such as emotional stability, openness to experience and extraversion, as well as gender impacted preparation and resilience. An interest in different types of horror and more rarely pandemic-themed content was associated with the psychological resilience and preparedness scores. The results are considered in terms of the relative role of the characteristics of the individual and their film interests and how such individual differences in film preferences and experiences affected the coping strategies during a highly stressful period in human history.